Site Demonstrators

At its core, DT-GEO involves deploying 12 Digital Twin Components (DTCs). These DTCs are self-contained entities containing simulation codes, Artificial Intelligence capabilities, and real-time data streams connected to data lakes. They are designed to handle scientific inquiries and technical challenges such as hazard assessment, early warning forecasts, urgent computing, and resource prospecting.

The functionality of these DTCs will be assessed at 13 Site Demonstrators located in different regions globally. These locations serve as practical testing environments for the DTCs. This evaluation process is a crucial step towards achieving our ultimate objective, Destination Earth.

Furthermore, it’s important to note that our Site Demonstrators not only tackle technical challenges but also contribute to generating valuable scientific datasets and engage in outreach efforts. These sites play a significant role in advancing innovation in the field of geophysics.

Map of the DT-GEO Site Demonstrators

The 13 Site Demonstrators in detail

Etna Volcano

Used by DTC-T1

Mount Etna stands as one of the world's most active and, arguably, the most closely monitored and extensively researched volcanoes. Its frequent activities range from the unconventional vent openings and menacing lava flows threatening numerous villages on its flanks, including the city of Catania, to captivating lava fountains and ash-laden volcanic plumes that pose risks to the nearby international airport and air traffic.

Grímsvötn Volcano

Used by DTC-V2

Grímsvötn, located at the heart of Iceland's Vatnajökull glacier in the southeastern quadrant, is known for frequent phreato-magmatic eruptions. The most recent eruption took place in 2011. These eruptions typically result in tephra fallout, volcanic clouds, lightning, and glacial floods as the primary hazards. Presently, the volcano is in a pre-eruptive state, with an eruption expected in the near future.

Fagradalsfjall Volcano

Used by DTC-V3 and DTC-V4

Since March 19th, 2021, an ongoing eruption has been observed at Fagradalsfjall volcano, which belongs to the Krysuvik volcanic system in the Peykjanes peninsula (SW of Iceland). This eruption features effusive activity accompanied by a continuous release of volcanic gases. Due to its proximity to inhabited areas (less than 30 km), low air quality events are the primary hazard.

Mediterranean Sea Coast

Used by DTC-T1

Testing the PTF for various earthquake sources across the entire Mediterranean Sea, with a primary focus on evaluating how new functionalities such as real-time data fusion of seismic, GNSS, and tsunami data reduce source uncertainty. Testing will involve the retrospective analysis of earthquake and tsunami events dating back to 2015.

Eastern Sicily

Used by DTC-T1

Testing the PTF for both earthquake and coupling to earthquake induced ladnslide sources along the Eastern Sicily Coast. This includes also coupling to modelling tsunami inundation for landslide sources. Here, the main testing will be devoted to test the entire DTC-T1 workflow functionality, and synthetic events will be used.

Chilean Coast

Used by DTC-T1

Testing the PTF for recent earthquakes and tsunami sources offshore Chile, with a primary emphasis on evaluating how new functionality such as real-time data fusion of seismic and, where available, GNSS and tsunami data, reduces source uncertainty. Testing will involve extensive retrospective analysis of past earthquake and tsunami events, including the 2010 Maile and 2014 Iquique tsunamis.

Eastern Honshu Coast

Used by DTC-T1

Testing the PTF for recent earthquakes and tsunami sources offshore Honshu, with a primary focus on evaluating how new functionality such as real-time data fusion of seismic, GNSS (where available), and tsunami data reduces source uncertainty. Testing will involve extensive retrospective analysis of past earthquake and tsunami events, including the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami.


Used by DTC-E1, DTC-E2, DTC-E3, DTC-E5 and DTC-E6

The European Mediterranean region is a complex tectonic area with seismicity ranging from highly active to relatively quiet. Seismicity in this region is monitored by national agencies and the European Mediterranean Seismological Center (EMSC/EPOS). All knowledge regarding seismicity and faults converges in the European Seismic Hazard Model 2020 (ESHM20).

Central Apennines and Alto-Tiberine

Used by DTC-E1, DTC-E2, DTC-E3 and DTC-E4

Due to its long history of catastrophic earthquakes, including the recent Amatrice-Norcia sequence (2016-2017), this area is the most closely monitored in the Euro-Med region. It includes the Alto-Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (DOI:10.4401/ag-6426, EPOS), offering dense multi-parameter real-time observations on a very active fault.


Used by DTC-E4

The Bedretto Deep Underground Laboratory was established by ETH in a tunnel located under the Gotthard Massif with a large cavern located at over 2km from the entrance at over 1200m depth, enabling experiments for geo-energies and earthquake physics on scales of 50-400 m, including the ERC Synergy project Fault Activation and Earthquake Rupture.


Used by DTC-E5

The AlpArray Seismic Network covers the entire Alpine region with the densest, high-quality seismic array globally, featuring over 700 broadband seismic stations. It extends across eight countries and involves 24 participating national institutions. The network integrates present-day Earth observables with high-resolution geophysical imaging of 3D structure.

Strasbourg Geothermal Site

Used by DTC-A1

SD12 is located in Strasbourg, where four deep geothermal energy projects have been initiated. One of them, GEOVEN, has faced a major seismic crisis after a series of earthquakes (3 < M < 3.9) since November 2012, leading to numerous building damages in the area. Legal authorities have imposed a moratorium on all projects pending an extended investigation, in which the DT-GEO project could play a significant role.

KGHM Ore Mine

Used by DTC-A1

Copper-ore mine of KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. in Poland is grappling with significant challenges related to dynamic and continuous mining-induced deformation. These mines experience intense seismic activity, with induced earthquakes occasionally reaching magnitudes exceeding 4.0 and significant rockbursts.